Comprehensive Yellow Fever Vaccination Requirements

Yellow fever is a viral disease found in parts of Africa and South America. It is transmitted to humans by a mosquito bite. Even though there is no risk of becoming infected while traveling in countries outside of tropical South America or sub-Saharan Africa, certain countries REQUIRE a yellow fever vaccination. Some countries require a Yellow Fever Vaccination for all travelers, while others only require a vaccination if a traveler is coming FROM either areas infected with yellow fever, or areas where yellow fever transmission has occurred (called Endemic Areas). The "endemic" areas are found in tropical South America and Africa. For the current list of yellow fever infected countries, read "Summary of Health Information for International Travel (The Blue Sheet)."

In general, if you are only traveling from the United States to countries in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, East or Southeast Asia, Australia and the South Pacific, the Caribbean, most of Central America, or temperate South America, CDC does not recommend, and you are not required to have a yellow fever vaccination.

However, if your travel plans include traveling to or from a South American or African country that is infected with yellow fever or is located in areas where yellow fever transmission has occurred (ENDEMIC AREAS), then the easiest and safest thing to do is to get a yellow fever vaccination and a signed certificate. Be aware, the age requirements for vaccination can vary from country to country. Be sure to read the Yellow Fever Certificate information below, the instructions on page 2, and then refer the country by country requirements in this document.

Yellow fever vaccination, a one dose shot, may be administered to adults and children over 9 months of age. This vaccine is only administered at designated yellow fever centers, usually your local health department. If at continued risk, a booster is needed every 10 years.

MEDICAL REASONS NOT TO RECEIVE THE VACCINE:

  • Infants under 4 months must not be immunized.
  • Persons severely allergic to eggs should not be given the vaccine. Generally, persons able to eat eggs or egg products can safely receive the vaccine.
  • It is prudent on theoretical grounds to avoid vaccinating pregnant women, and for non-immunized pregnant women to postpone travel to epidemic areas until after delivery. (Pregnant women who must travel to HIGH RISK areas should be vaccinated.)
  • Persons, whose immune systems are suppressed due to HIV infection, or those travelers undergoing treatments for cancers (leukemia, lymphoma, etc.), or receiving corticosteroids, alkylating drugs, antimetabolites, or radiation, in general, should not be vaccinated unless traveling to an area of known yellow fever transmission. (Patients with suppressed immune systems have a theoretical risk of encephalitis due to the yellow fever vaccine virus.)
Yellow Fever Certificate
After immunization an International Certificate of Vaccination is issued and is valid 10 days after vaccination to meet entry and exit requirements for all countries. The Certificate is good for 10 years. You must take the Certificate with you. Travelers who have a medical reason not to receive the yellow fever vaccine should obtain a medical waiver. Most countries will accept a medical waiver for persons with a medical reason not to receive the vaccine. When required, CDC recommends obtaining written waivers from consular or embassy officials before departure. A physician's letter clearly stating the medical reason not to receive the vaccine might be acceptable to some governments. It should be written on letterhead stationery and bear the stamp used by a health department or official immunization center to validate the International Certificate of Vaccination. Check embassies or consulates for specific waiver requirements.

INSTRUCTIONS: Listed next to each country are the Yellow Fever recommendation and requirement codes, which are explained at the bottom of the pages. The explanations are listed in order of broadest requirements (those that apply to most travelers) to the narrower requirements (fewer people are likely to be in this category) A dash (-) indicates no vaccination is required or recommended. Age requirements are the 4th column and refer to the age at which vaccination is required: >1y = greater than 1 year; >6m or >9m = greater than 6 or 9 months; >0 = the age requirement is at the country's discretion, and vaccination could be required as young as birth. If you are travelling with infants and young children, check with embassies and consulates for their specific requirements, then consult with your doctor.

Tropical South America
Bolivia			2  X  R  >0
Brazil			2  X  R  >6m
Colombia		   X  R
Ecuador			2  X     >1y
French Guiana		1  X     >1y
Guyana			2  X  SE >0
Paraguay		   X  R
Peru			2  X  R  >6m
Suriname		2  X     >0
Venezuela		   X

Temperate South America
Argentina		   X  S
Chile			-
Falkland Is. (U.K.)	-
Uruguay			-

Central America
Belize			2        >0
Costa Rica		-
El Salvador		2        >6m
Guatemala		3        >1y
Honduras		2        >0
Mexico			2        >6m
Nicaragua		2        >1y
Panama			  X  R

East Asia
China			2
Hong Kong		-
Japan			-
Korea, Republic		-
Korea, Democratic	-
Macao			-
Mongolia		-
Taiwan			2

Caribbean And West Indies
Antigua & Barbuda	2        >1y
Bahamas			2        >1y
Barbados		2        >1y
Bermuda (U.K.)		-
Cayman Is. (U.K.)	-
Cuba			-
Dominica		2        >1y
Dominican Republic	-
Grenada			2        >1y
Guadeloupe		2        >1y
Haiti			2        >0
Jamaica			2        >1y
Martinique (France)	2        >1y
Montserrat (U.K.)	2        >1y
Netherlands Antilles	2        >6m
Puerto Rico (U.S.)	-
Saint Lucia		2        >1y
St. Vincent &
 the Grenadines		2        >1y
St. Kitts & Nevis	2        >1y
Trinidad & Tobago	2  X     >1y
Virgin Islands, U.S.	-
Virgin Islands, U.K.	-

South East Asia
Brunei Darussalam	2     E  >1y
Cambodia		2        >0
Indonesia		2     E  >0
Laos			2        >0
Malaysia		2     E  >1y
Myanmar			2     S  >0
Philippines		2        >1y
Singapore		3     E  >1y
Thailand		2     E  >1y
Vietnam			2        >1y
X = Yellow fever vaccination recommended by CDC for travelers (>9 mos) going outside urban areas.
1 = Vaccination and Certificate required for all travelers. For age requirements, see instructions above.
E = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a yellow fever "endemic" country. (See the list of Yellow Fever "Endemic" countries.)
S = Special requirements/recommendations, see "Special Requirements" below.
3 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a country any part of which is infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet")
2 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from infected areas in countries currently infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet".)
R = A yellow fever vaccination is recommended for travel to a specific destination in a country.
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: Argentina: Risk in northeastern forest areas only. Bolivia: Guyana: Certificate is also required for travelers from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Paraguay: Certificate only required for travelers leaving Paraguay destined to "Endemic" countries.

North Africa
Algeria			2        >1y
Canary Islands          -
Egypt			2     SE >1y
Libyan Arab
 Jamahiriya		2        >1y
Morocco			-
Tunisia			2        >1y

Southern Africa
Botswana		-
Lesotho			2        >0
Namibia			2     SE >1y
South Africa		2     E  >0
St. Helena		-
Swaziland		2        >0
Zimbabwe		2        >0

Central Africa
Angola			2  X     >1y
Cameroon		1  X     >1y
Central African
 Republic		1  X     >1y
Chad			   X  S  >1y
Congo			1  X     >1y
Equatorial Guinea	2  X     >0
Gabon			1  X     >1y
Sudan			2  X  SE >1y
Zaire			1  X     >1y
Zambia			-
West Africa
Benin			1  X     >1y
Burkina Faso		1  X     >1y
Cape Verde Islands	2     S  >1y
Cote d'lvoire		1  X     >1y
Gambia			2  X  E  >1y
Ghana			1  X     >0
Guinea			2  X     >1y
Guinea-Bissau		2  X  E  >1y
Liberia			1  X     >1y
Mali			1  X     >1y
Mauritania		1     S  >1y
Niger			1  X  S  >1y
Nigeria			2  X     >1y
Sao Tome/Principe	1     S  >1y
Senegal			1  X     >1y
Sierra Leone		2  X     >0
Togo			1  X     >1y

East Africa
Burundi			2  X     >1y
Comoros			-
Djibouti		2        >1y
Ethiopia		2  X     >1y
Kenya			2  X     >1y
Madagascar		2     S  >0
Malawi			2        >0
Mauritius		2     E  >1y
Mayotte			-
Mozambique		2        >1y
Reunion			2        >1y
Rwanda			1  X     >1y
Seychelles		2        >1y
Somalia			2        >0 
Tanzania		2  X  E  >1y
Uganda			2  X  E  >1y
X = Yellow fever vaccination recommended by CDC for travelers (>9 mos) going outside urban areas.
1 = Vaccination and Certificate required for all travelers. For age requirements, see instructions above.
E = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a yellow fever "endemic" country. (See the list of Yellow Fever "Endemic" countries.)
S = Special requirements/recommendations, see "Special Requirements" below.
3 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a country any part of which is infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet")
2 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from infected areas in countries currently infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet".)
R = A yellow fever vaccination is recommended for travel to a specific destination in a country.
>1y, >9m, >6m, >0 = Age requirements - see "Instructions" above.
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Egypt: Add Botswana and Malawi, plus Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Trinidad, and Tobago to "Endemic" list. Travelers in transit without certificate are detained in airport precincts. Mauritania and Sao Tome/Principe: No certificate required if arriving from non-infected country and staying < 2 weeks. Namibia: Required for all unscheduled air flights. A certificate is required ALSO from travelers arriving from countries in the endemic zones (See the list of Yellow Fever "Endemic" countries.). A certificate is required ALSO from travelers on unscheduled flights, who have transited an infected area. Children under one year of age may be subject to surveillance. Niger: recommends vaccination for travelers leaving the country. Sudan: Certificate may be required from travelers leaving Sudan.

Indian Subcontinent
Afghanistan		2        >0
Bangladesh		3     SE >0
Bhutan			2        >0
India			3     SE >0
Maldives		2        >0
Nepal			2        >0
Pakistan		3     SE >0
Sri Lanka		2        >1y

Middle East
Bahrain			2        >1y
Cyprus			-
Iran			2     E  >1y    
Iraq			2
Israel			-
Jordan			      E  >0
Kuwait			-
Lebanon			2        >0
Oman			2        >0
Qatar			2        >1y
Saudi Arabia		3        >0
Syrian Arab Republic	2        >0
Turkey			-
United Arab Emirates	-
Yemen			2        >1y

Australia & South Pacific Islands
Australia		3        >1y
American Samoa		2        >1y
Christmas Island	3        >1y
Cook Island		-
Fiji			2        >1y
Guam			-
Kiribati		2        >1y
Nauru			2        >1y
Marshall Islands        -
Micronesia		-
(Fed. States of)
New Caledonia		2        >1y
New Zealand		-
Niue			2        >1y
Northern Mariana 
 Islands		-
Papua New Guinea	2        >1y
Pitcairn		2        >1y
Samoa			2        >1y
Solomon Islands		2        >0
Tahiti			2        >0
Tonga			2        >1y
Tuvalu			-
U.S. Trust Terr. of
 the Pacific Islands	-
Vanuatu			-
Wake Island		-

North America
Canada			-
St. Pierre and Miquelon -
United States		-
X = Yellow fever vaccination recommended by CDC for travelers (>9 mos) going outside urban areas.
1 = Vaccination and Certificate required for all travelers. For age requirements, see instructions above.
E = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a yellow fever "endemic" country. (See the list of Yellow Fever "Endemic" countries.)
S = Special requirements/recommendations, see "Special Requirements" below.
3 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a country any part of which is infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet")
2 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from infected areas in countries currently infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet".)
R = A yellow fever vaccination is recommended for travel to a specific destination in a country.
>1y, >9m, >6m, >0 = Age Requirements - see "Instructions" above.
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: Bangladesh: Add Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Trinidad, and Tobago to "Endemic" list. India: Add Trinidad and Tobago to "Endemic" list. Madagascar: Also includes transiting travelers.

Eastern Europe
Albania			2        >1y
Armenia			-
Azerbaijan		-
Belarus			-
Bosnia/Herzegovina	-
Bulgaria		-
Croatia			-
Czech Republic		-
Estonia			-
Georgia			-
Hungary			-
Kazakhstan		-
Kyrgyzstan		-
Latvia			-
Lithuania		-
Moldova			-
Poland			-
Romania			-
Russia			-
Serbia/Montenegro	-
Slovak Republic		-
Slovenia		-
Tajikistan		-
Turkmenistan		-
Ukraine			-
Uzbekistan		-
Western Europe
Andorra			-
Austria			-
Azores			2     S  >1y
Belgium			-
Denmark			-
Faroe Island		-
Finland			-
France			-
Germany			-
Gibraltar		-
Greece			2        >6m
Greenland		-
Iceland			-
Ireland			-
Italy			-
Liechtenstein		-
Luxembourg		-
Madeira			2    S   >1y
Malta			2    S   >9m
Monaco			-
Netherlands		-
Norway			-
Portugal		     S  >1y
San Marino		-
Spain			-
Sweden			-
Switzerland		-
United Kingdom		- 
X = Yellow fever vaccination recommended by CDC for travelers (>9 mos) going outside urban areas.
1 = Vaccination and Certificate required for all travelers. For age requirements, see instructions above.
E = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a yellow fever "endemic" country. (See the list of Yellow Fever "Endemic" countries.)
S = Special requirements/recommendations, see "Special Requirements" below.
3 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from a country any part of which is infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet")
2 = Vaccination and Certificate required for travelers arriving from infected areas in countries currently infected with yellow fever (as listed on the biweekly "Summary of Health Information for International Travel", the "Blue Sheet".)
R = A yellow fever vaccination is recommended for travel to a specific destination in a country.
>1y, >9m, >6m, >0 = Age Requirements - see "Instructions" above.
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: Azores: Except no certificate required from travelers in transit at Santa Maria. Portugal: Certificate required only for travelers in transit to the Azores and Madeira from an infected county. However, no certificate is required from passengers in transit at Funchal, Porto Santo, and Santa Maria.

Yellow Fever "Endemic" Countries
Countries in AfricaCountries in South America
Angola
Benin
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Congo
Cote d'Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Liberia
Mali
Mauritania
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome & Principe
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Somalia
Sudan
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zaire
Zambia
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
French Guiana
Guyana
Panama
Peru
Suriname
Venezuela